Polymers are made up of many tiny molecules strung together to form long chains (and sometimes more complicated structures). Natural polymers are found in many forms such as horns of animals, tortoise shell, shellac (from the lac beetle), rosin (from pine trees), rubber (obtained from several types of trees), asphalt, and tar from distillation of organic materials. Synthetic polymers …

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Materials Science Index

Everything we use in our daily lives is made of material or a combination of materials, including natural materials like wood, bone, straw, wool, cotton – and there is man-made materials like steel, pottery, plastic, semiconductors, concrete, textiles, paper. Materials science is an applied science concerned with the relationship between the structure and properties of …

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Ionic Crystals

The atoms of ionic crystals are held together by electrostatic forces (ionic bonds). Ionic crystals are hard and have relatively high melting points. Table salt (NaCl) is an example of this type of crystal.

Composite Material

A composite material is any material in which two or more separate materials have been combined to make a single construct having more desirable properties. Composites are probably the most common structural materials in the world, and have always been an essential part of our lives. Concrete, paper, corrugated cardboard, plywood, fiberglass, bamboo, cornstalks, trees, …

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Limnology is the scientific study of bodies of fresh water. It covers the biological, chemical, physical, geological, and other attributes of all inlaid waters (running and standing waters, both fresh and saline, natural or man-made). This includes the study of lakes and ponds, rivers, springs, streams and wetlands.


Hydrology is the science that encompasses the occurrence, distribution, movement and properties of the waters of the earth and their relationship with the environment within each phase of the hydrologic cycle. The water cycle, or hydrologic cycle, is a continuous process by which water is purified by evaporation and transported from the earth’s surface (including the oceans) to …

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