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Oceanography, also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earth’s oceans and seas. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. Put simply, it is a branch of science dealing with physical and biological aspects of the oceans.

Branches of Oceanography
There are generally five branches of oceanography:

  1. Biological oceanography or marine biology, the study of the plants and animals (biota) of the oceans and their ecological interaction.
  2. Chemical oceanography, the study of the chemistry of the ocean.
  3. Geological oceanography, the study of the geology of the ocean floor including plate tectonics.
  4. Meteorologic oceanography, the study of the interactions of the atmosphere and the ocean in the hydrosphere.
  5. Physical oceanography, the study of the physical attributes of the ocean (such as its temperature-salinity structure, waves and currents).

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