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Dendrology is the study of woody plants. These include trees: erect woody plants usually with one central trunk; shrubs: erect plants with numerous woody stems; and vines: woody plants that require an erect substrate for support. Dendrology tends to focus on economically useful woody plants, their identification and horticultural or silvicultural properties.

Dendrology is often confused with botany. However, botany is the study of all types of general plants, while dendrology studies only wooded plants. Dendrology may be considered a subcategory of botany that specializes in wooded plants.