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Glossary C


A waterproof, ankle length (over- the-head) parka used by mountaineers for bivouacking. Cagoules have well tailored hoods and drawstring hems. The wearer pulls his legs inside, draws the hem tight, and “outlasts” the elements.

A stack of rocks used to mark a trail’s route through areas devoid of trees.

A term commonly used to describe the size of a projectile from a rifle or handgun. The calibre is the measurement, in inches or millimeters, of the inner diameter of the barrel. For example, a .22 calibre rifle measures approximately .22 inches from one side of the barrel to the other. The inner diameter of the barrel of a 9mm pistol is approximately 9mm.

The process in which large chunks of ice break off a glacier.

The wheel or pulley on the end of compound bow’s limb used to provide let-off and power.

The layer in plants that separates the xylem from the phloem.

A way to hide things and make them hard to see.

A man-made waterway connecting two bodies of water and is designed to shorten travel time or irrigate.

Cane Pole
A fishing pole made from a bamboo shoot.

A long boat pointed at both ends that is easy to paddle.

The part of any stand of trees represented by the tree crowns. It usually refers to the uppermost layer of foliage, but it can be use to describe lower layers in a multi-storied forest.

A deep valley with very steep sides – most often carved from the Earth by a river. (see more about canyons)

A pointed piece of land that sticks out into a seaocean, lake, or river. (see more about capes)

Caping (hunting)
The process of cutting and removing the hide from the head, shoulders and neck of a game animal.

Caplock (hunting)
A percussion muzzleloading rifle ignited by means of a hammer falling on a cap placed on a nipple.

A carabiner is a D-shaped ring with a spring catch on one side, used for fastening ropes in mountaineering.

Carbon Cycle
The continuous exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen moving among living things.

Cardinal Points
The four main points of direction on a compass– North/360 degrees; East/90 degrees; South/180 degrees; and West/270 degrees.

Carnassial Tooth
Carnivorous mammals have a carnassial tooth which is a blade-like tooth that is designed to slice through flesh.

Feeding on animal tissues.

The science and art of making maps.

A technique using a rod to throw your line, hook and bait into the water.

Cast net
A circular net thrown by hand. the outer perimeter is lined with lead weights. Great for catching shrimp and baitfish.

Caudal Fin
Caudal is an anatomical term meaning “the back”. The caudal fin is the tail fin or tail of a fish.

A large hole in the ground or in the side of a hill or mountain.

A hole in a tree often used by wildlife species, usually birds, for nesting, roosting, and reproduction.

Celestial NavigationA method of navigating by referring to the stars or other objects in the sky. (see more about navigation)

Centreshot Bow
A bow where the sight window has been cut past the bow’s centreline.

Cervid (hunting)
A member of the deer family, such as mule deer, elk, moose, and caribou.

Chalking (hunting)
To rub carpenter’s chalk on the inside the lid of a box call to improve the sound of the caller.

Change of Tide
The change of one tide condition (rising or falling) for the other (falling or rising), or of one tidal current direction flow for the other.

A body of water that connects two larger bodies of water. A channel is also a part of a river or harbor that is deep enough to let ships sail through.

Grooved or cut deeply.

Channel Marker
Used to mark the safe edges of a channel.

Chimney (climbing)
A wide crack, into which a climber can fit their whole body.

A warm, dry wind experienced along the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. Most common in winter and spring, it can result in a rise in temperature of 20C (35 to 40F) in a quarter of an hour.

Choppy Sea
Short, rough waves tumbling with a short and quick motion. Short-crested waves that may spring up quickly in a moderate breeze, and break easily at the crest.

Chronograph (hunting)
An electronic meter used to measure an arrows speed coming out of the bow. The arrow is shot through a “window” in the device, and gives out readings in fps (feet per second).

Chopped up fish, shellfish or even animal parts (for sharks), dropped overboard to attract gamefish.

A fishing technique by which bait or scent is released into the water to attract fish to take a lure or baited hook. Chum consists of live, dead, ground-up or prepared baits and scents and is used in fresh and saltwater.

A pupa (the stage between a larva and an adult) enclosed in a firm case or cocoon.

A bowl-shaped depression formed at the beginning or end of a glacier – a cirque has high walls except for the downhill portion where the glacier once flowed downwards.

Clicker (hunting)
A device that serves the same function as a “draw stop” (for bows unequipped with draw stops) usually found on Olympic or FITA style recurves. You hear an audible “click” when a certain pre-set draw length is reached letting you know that you are at your full draw.

A vertical, high steep face of a rock.

Commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period of time.

A mass of tiny droplets of water that condensed from the air.

Land along the sea or ocean.

Coastal Downwelling (ocean)
A type of vertical current that arises when onshore winds (or winds blowing toward the shore) push water toward the coast. This drives the nearshore surface water down and away from the coast.

Coastal Waters
Coastal Waters nclude the area from a line approximating the mean high water along the mainland or island as far out as 25 miles including the bays, harbors and sounds.

Coastal Upwelling (ocean)
A type of vertical current that arises when offshore winds (or winds blowing toward the ocean) push water away from the shore and deep, colder water rises to replace the water that has been blown out into the ocean. This cold water from deep off the ocean floor brings many nutrients to the surface.

A nest made by insects of woven silk, often to protect eggs or pupae.

In animals, a body cavity between the body wall and the digestive system that forms during preadult development.

A mountain pass.

A magnetic device used for orienteering and for finding your way with a map. (see more about compass)

Compound Bow (hunting)
A bow that is made easier to draw by a system of wheels and pulleys.

Compound Leaf (plants)
leaf in which the blade forms small leaflets. Compound leaves that have several small leaflets originating from a central axis are termed pinnately compound; example: rose. Compound leaves that have their leaflets originating from a common point are termed palmately compound; example: palm.

Composite Bow
A bow made of more than one material. Not necessarily a laminated bow.

The change in form water goes through when it turns from a gas to a liquid.

The loss of body heat through direct contact with a cold surface, damp clothing, cold water, etc.

The place at which two streams flow together to form one larger stream.

A tree that produces cones, such as a pine, spruce, or fir tree.

Continental Glacier (also called continental ice sheet)
A dome-shaped glacier that covers relatively flat land, for example, the Antarctic and Greenland glaciers. These are the largest glaciers.

To keep and protect from harm, loss, or change.

The management of a natural resource so that it can be sustained over the long-term.

One of the seven largest bodies of land on earth. (more about contintnets)

Continental Climate
The type of climate found in the interior of the major continents in the middle, or temperate, latitudes. The climate is characterized by a great seasonal variation in temperatures, four distinct seasons, and a relatively small annual precipitation.

Continental Divide
The line of high ground that separates the oceanic drainage basins of a continent; the river systems of a continent on opposite sides of a continental divide flow toward different oceans.

Continental Shelf
Plateau of land surface into the ocean but underwater.

Continental Slope
The declivity from the offshore border of the continental shelf to oceanic depths. It is characterized by a marked increase in slope.

A line drawn on a map connecting points of the same elevation.

Loss of body heat due to wind or other conditions that circulate cold air in exchange for the warm air your body has heated. The body will continuously attempt to warm the skin that is cooled by the cold air, causing you to lose your body heat and become hypothermic.

Cordelette (climbing)
Accessory cord – a long loop attached to several anchor points.

Corn Snow
Unconsolidated granular snow that has gone through a short freeze / and / thaw process.

Coronary Arteries (biology)
Arteries that supply the heart’s muscle fibers with nutrients and oxygen.

leaf-like structure that is present in the seeds of flowering plants; appears during seed germination and sometimes is referred to as a leaf.

Coues Deer (hunting)
A shy, diminutive subspecies of the whitetail deer found in the deserts of the American southwest and Mexico.

A dry canyon eroded by Pleistocene floods that cut into the lava beds of the Columbia Plateau in the western United States.

Countercurrent Flow
An arrangement by which fish obtain oxygen from the water that flows through their gills. Water flows across the respiratory surface of the gill in one direction while blood flows in the other direction through the blood vessels on the other side of the surface.

A small, horseshoe-shaped body of water along the coast; the water is surrounded by land formed of soft rock. (see more about coves).

A set of metal spikes worn on a hiking boot that gives you traction on icy surfaces. Some crampons are specifically for travel on ice and some are for ice-climbing. There are different features to both.

Crash Pad (climbing)
A pad, usually made of foam, placed at the bottom of a boulder problem onto which a climber can land if they fall, reducing the likelihood of some injuries (known as a Bouldering Mat in the UK).

Small fresh water crustaceans similar to lobsters only smaller.

A stream of water that is smaller than a river.

The highest part (very top) of a ridge, hill, or mountain range.

Crest (ocean)
The highest point on a wave.

A crack in the surface of a glacier.

Crimp (climbing)
A type of hold used when the climber can fit only their fingertips on the hold. A crimp may be ‘closed,’ in which the thumb is pressed over the index finger to strengthen one’s grip, or the crimp may be ‘open’, where the thumb does not touch the fingers. Closed crimps, while stronger, put more stress on the hand and are generally regarded as posing a higher risk of injury.

pupa (the stage between a larva and an adult) enclosed in a firm case or cocoon.

A small, strong bow, held and shot like a rifle.

Crossbow Bolt
The shaft or arrow fired from a crossbow.

Cross Chop
Wind-driven waves and ocean swell colliding from two directions. Also caused by waves bouncing off a seawall and going back out, colliding with incoming waves.

The layer of rock on the Earth’s surface.

A large taxonomic class of arthropods that includes lobsters, shrimps, and crabs.

Crux (climbing)
The most difficult move or series of moves in a problem or route. The grade of a problem or route is generally determined by the difficulty of the crux (depending on the type of grading system being used).

The flow of a stream of water.

An area of low pressure around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. Also the term used for a hurricane in the Indian Ocean and in the Western Pacific Ocean.