First Aid

Frostbite

Frostbite is freezing of the skin or underlying tissues that occurs as a result of prolonged exposure to cold. It mainly affects the feet, hands, ears and nose. Frost bitten skin is pale or blue, stiff or rubbery to touch, and feels cold and numb. The severity is divided into 3 degrees: First degree: frostnip – Skin whitish …

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Superficial Frostbite

When frost nipped skin isn’t warmed up, it’ll often develop into superficial frostbite. At this stage, the tissue under the skin has begun to freeze and will appear white and bloodless, although it will remain soft and pliable when you touch it. The affected part feels very cold and numb and may tingle, sting or ache. …

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Fainting

Fainting, also called syncope, is a sudden, brief / temporary loss of consciousness and posture caused by decreased blood flow to the brain. Fainting may have a variety of causes (just to name a few):Emotional stressHyperventilationLow blood sugarAnemiaCardiac problemsSevere painStanding up too fast Before fainting, you may experience:NauseaGiddinessExcessive sweatingDim visionRapid heartbeat or palpitations If you think …

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Drowning

A drowning victim may be flailing their arms in distress or lying face down in the water. Signs & Symptoms Blue lips / ears Cold, pale skin Bloated abdomen. Vomiting. Choking Absence of breathing Weak or absence of pulse Confusion, lethargy, maybe unconscious Remove the victim from the water. Check if the victim is breathing. Look to see …

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Dehydration

Dehydration occurs when the body loses too much fluid, salt, and minerals. A certain amount of body fluids lost through normal body processes. A normal daily intake of food and liquids replaces these losses. When individuals are engaged in any strenuous activities, and excessive amount of fluid and salt is lost through sweat. This excessive loss creates an imbalance …

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Crush Syndrome

Crush syndrome occurs when a person’s body has been compressed for an extended period of time, usually beyond four hours. It takes more than a crushed extremity to develop crush syndrome, typically it occurs when larger areas of the body become trapped such as the legs, pelvic area or chest cavity. Damage begins at the …

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CPR

There are different methods of CPR, depending on the age of the victim. They are described as follows: Ask the victim, “Are you all right? Can you speak?” Shake the victim gently by the shoulders. Open airway using head tilt-chin lift. Place your upper hand on the victim’s forehead, pushing it back. Fingers on lower hand …

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Windburn

Windburn is sunburn accelerated by the effects of wind removing the UV-fltering thin layer of lipids from the skin and irritation caused by the wind. Though formerly thought to be solely the result of wind, the condition has been demonstrated to be the result of sun exposure aggravated by exposure to wind. Although windburn most frequently targets …

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