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First Aid

Heat Stroke

The most serious heat related illness is heat stroke. In simple terms, heat stroke is a breakdown of the cooling mechanisms of the body, induced by high body temperature. Someone who is experiencing heat stroke may stop sweating altogether and the skin will appear dry and hot. The pulse is usually strong but rapid. The person may have …

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Heat Rash

Heat rash (prickly heat) is a red or pink rash usually found on body areas covered by clothing. It can develop when the sweat ducts become blocked and swell and often leads to discomfort and itching. Heat rash may be affect in hot, humid climates. Heat rash looks like dots or tiny pimples. The rash can …

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Heat Exhaustion

Heat Exhaustion is a serious state of heat illness. It is caused by low levels of body fluid and salts resulting from exposure to intense heat or the inability to adjust to heat. Heat exhaustion may or may not include collapse with or without consciousness. Symptoms include excessive sweating, cold clammy skin, normal or slightly …

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Heat Cramps

Heat cramps are strong muscle contractions (spasms). The muscle contractions are forceful and painful usually involving muscles that are fatigued by heavy work such as calves, thighs, and shoulders. These cramps can be connected to heat, dehydration, and poor conditioning (examples: exercise or work in a hot environment). Some of the most common symptoms of heat cramps …

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Frostnip

Like frostbite, frostnip is associated with ice crystal formation in the tissues, but no tissue destruction occurs and the crystals dissolve as soon as the skin is warmed. Frostnip affects areas such as the earlobes, cheeks, nose, fingers, and toes. The skin turns pale and one experiences numbness or tingling in the affected part until warming …

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Frostbite

Frostbite is freezing of the skin or underlying tissues that occurs as a result of prolonged exposure to cold. It mainly affects the feet, hands, ears and nose. Frost bitten skin is pale or blue, stiff or rubbery to touch, and feels cold and numb. The severity is divided into 3 degrees: First degree: frostnip – Skin whitish …

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Superficial Frostbite

When frost nipped skin isn’t warmed up, it’ll often develop into superficial frostbite. At this stage, the tissue under the skin has begun to freeze and will appear white and bloodless, although it will remain soft and pliable when you touch it. The affected part feels very cold and numb and may tingle, sting or ache. …

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Fainting

Fainting, also called syncope, is a sudden, brief / temporary loss of consciousness and posture caused by decreased blood flow to the brain. Fainting may have a variety of causes (just to name a few):Emotional stressHyperventilationLow blood sugarAnemiaCardiac problemsSevere painStanding up too fast Before fainting, you may experience:NauseaGiddinessExcessive sweatingDim visionRapid heartbeat or palpitations If you think …

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Drowning

A drowning victim may be flailing their arms in distress or lying face down in the water. Signs & Symptoms Blue lips / ears Cold, pale skin Bloated abdomen. Vomiting. Choking Absence of breathing Weak or absence of pulse Confusion, lethargy, maybe unconscious Remove the victim from the water. Check if the victim is breathing. Look to see …

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Dehydration

Dehydration occurs when the body loses too much fluid, salt, and minerals. A certain amount of body fluids lost through normal body processes. A normal daily intake of food and liquids replaces these losses. When individuals are engaged in any strenuous activities, and excessive amount of fluid and salt is lost through sweat. This excessive loss creates an imbalance …

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Crush Syndrome

Crush syndrome occurs when a person’s body has been compressed for an extended period of time, usually beyond four hours. It takes more than a crushed extremity to develop crush syndrome, typically it occurs when larger areas of the body become trapped such as the legs, pelvic area or chest cavity. Damage begins at the …

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CPR

There are different methods of CPR, depending on the age of the victim. They are described as follows: Ask the victim, “Are you all right? Can you speak?” Shake the victim gently by the shoulders. Open airway using head tilt-chin lift. Place your upper hand on the victim’s forehead, pushing it back. Fingers on lower hand …

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Windburn

Windburn is sunburn accelerated by the effects of wind removing the UV-fltering thin layer of lipids from the skin and irritation caused by the wind. Though formerly thought to be solely the result of wind, the condition has been demonstrated to be the result of sun exposure aggravated by exposure to wind. Although windburn most frequently targets …

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